What is science? The example of astronomy

To understand the meaning of unscientific, we need to look at how a serious science is conducted: it is always developing better methods to measure theory against reality.

  What is science? The example of astronomy
To understand the meaning of unscientific, we need to look at how a serious science is conducted: it is always developing better methods to measure theory against reality.


In 1509 Copernicus developed the theory that the sun and not the Earth was the centre of the universe and that all the planets revolve around the sun in circles. Kepler improved on the theory, stating that circular orbits were special cases, and that most orbits were elliptical, and he also discovered the laws governing the motion of the planets.

On the basis of Kepler's work, Newton developed the theory of gravity. The methods of calculation and observation were continuously improved to check the congruence of theory and reality.

  Apsidal precession Merkur


The elliptical orbits rotate and Newton's equations made it possible to calculate these rotations. But in the middle of the 19th century, Urbain Le Verrier discovered that the perihelion precession of Mercury was not 530 arcseconds per century, as calculated by Newton, but 43 arcseconds more.

It was imperative to find an explanation for this, as for a precise science like astronomy, a deviation of 43 arcseconds per century was an inacceptable discrepancy between theory and reality. An explanation was sought; it was conjectured that another planet might lie in Mercury's orbit. Astronomers tried to find it during each solar eclipse.

It was Einstein who ultimately found the explanation with his general theory of relativity. Newton's equations of motion were a borderline case of general relativity theory, applicable for small masses and velocities. But with increasing mass and velocity there are ever greater deviations bewteen Newton's and Einstein's calculations.

In the case of the double pulsars PSR J0737-3039 the difference bewteen Newton's and Einstein's equations is as much as 16.9 degrees per year.

43 arcseconds deviation and an explanation is determinedly sought. That is science. Meanwhile the discrepancy between the claims of economic scientists and reality is already 180 degrees.

Destructive Cult
Aberrations of mankind caused incredible destruction caused by wrong ideas. The total madness of Nazi racial doctrine, Pol Pot, the''economics''.




  Accusation against economic science


By pretending to know about economy, by pretending to be a science, there had been caused damage beyond measure.

The hunt for the culprit has ended
Since 1991 PEGE has been trying to lead humanity into the solar age, but has met with hard and completely irrational resistance. Who could be mad enough to be against paradise?


Cloud Cuckoo Land
An ideal world where there is a precise correspondence between theory and reality. The world in which economc science functions perfectly.


Club of Rome - "The Limits to Growth" 1972
The Dr. Hubbert peak oil theory of 1956 was shown to hold true for the USA in 1973, Club of Rome 1972, how was this incorporated in the economic sciences?


The oil crisis and the economic crisis of 2008
The crisis occurred 35 years after economic scientists failed to include the increasing scarcity of raw materials and alternative strategies in their calculations.


Follow-up environmental costs
The way economic scientists deal with follow-up costs for the environment. Trusting in a ''science'' that ignores the requirement of survival.


Easy-earned money - hard-earned money
Most of the costs for transportation and building heat have to be paid with the hardest-earned money: imports can only be paid through foreign exchange assets from exports.




Context description:  politics political